تو تاریخ های هنر می خونیم که رومی ها خیلی تو مهندسی رشد کردن و پل ها و
آب راه های زیادی ساختن ؛ ولی هیچ وقت درست و حسابی کارهای اونا رو ندیدیم.
این جا مجموعه ای از پل ها و مهندسی های به جا مونده از امپراطوری روم باستان رو در کنار هم داریم :
طاق رومی که این قدر معروفه هم همین چیزیه که دارین توی این سازه ها می بینین.
Aqueducts, those most triumphal examples of Roman arched architecture,
have been displaying the engineering genius of the ancients for tens of
centuries. These spectacular monuments
not only spanned rivers and valleys to provide Roman cities with
precious drinking water, aqueducts also spanned the length and breadth
's far-flung empire. Here are 15 of the most noteworthy survivors.
The Park of the Aqueducts, Rome, Italy
It's been said that "all roads lead to Rome"
but the same might be said about aqueducts. Ancient Rome had a
population of just over 1 million and on hot summer days, it takes more
than bread and circuses to cool off a public inflamed by a gladiatorial
doubleheader at the Colosseum. During the Middle Ages, Rome's population
dropped to around 30,000 – due in no small part to water shortages
caused by the decay of the Eternal City's life-giving aqueducts. The
remains of several of Rome's largest aqueducts can be seen, up close and
personal, at The Park of The Aqueducts
A common theme of art's Romantic Age was the decline and fall of Ancient Rome. Painters such as Thomas Cole
sought to express the weight of history and the loss of wisdom embodied
in the fall of Rome by painting the remnants of the Empire's largest
and most visible examples of monumental architecture, the aqueducts.
Above is "Roman Campagna (Ruins of Aqueducts in the Campagna di Roma)"
, painted by Cole in 1843.
Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain
The Aqueduct of Segovia
is one of the best-preserved Roman aqueducts in Spain. So well-built
was the aqueduct and so studious its maintenance through the Middle Ages
that it functioned as a viable water delivery system well into the 20th
aqueduct features a total of 167 arches and the granite blocks used in
its construction were assembled without the use of mortar.
aqueduct was repaired in the year 1072 and again in the late 15th
century on the orders of Spain's ruling couple, Ferdinand and Isabella.
At that time it was specified that the original visual style and
construction techniques be followed to the letter. Currently undergoing
repair and restoration, the Aqueduct of Segovia is a valued city and
state cultural landmark that showcases the vast skill of Roman engineers
nearly 2,000 years ago.
Eifel Aqueduct, Koln, Germany
The Eifel Aqueduct
was built in 80 AD to provide the Roman city of Colonia Claudia Ara
Agrippinensium (today's Cologne) with fresh water. The entire system
stretched across 95 kilometers (59 miles) to tap springs in Germany's
Eifel region. Most of the aqueduct was built underground to minimize
damage, vandalism (perhaps from actual Vandals) and freezing in winter.
few above-ground sections of the Eifel Aqueduct that remain show
complex and skillful construction methods using brick and stone masonry
that would not be matched in central Europe for many centuries.
Curiously, medieval craftsmen would remove the calcium carbonate scale
that accumulated in the inner walls of the aqueduct and reuse it as a
sort of faux marble called Eifel Stone.
Pont d'Aël, Cogne, Italy
The Pont d'Aël
is a practical combination of an aqueduct and a bridge. Located near
Aosta in northern Italy, the Pont d'Aël was part of a 6 km (3.7 mile)
long aqueduct that brought water to the newly founded Roman farming
colony of Augusta Prætoria Salassorum; today's Aosta. The original
structure dates from the year 3 BC and rises 66 meters (216.5 ft) above
the Aosta Valley.
the Pont d'Aël and its associated waterworks were not financed by the
state; instead the venture was privately planned and funded by Caius
Avillius Caimus, a wealthy citizen from the city of Patavium (Padua).
Plovdiv Aqueduct, Bulgaria
Founded by the ancient Macedonians and named Philippopolis, today's Plovdiv
Bulgaria was renamed Trimontium by the Romans as a nod to the three
main hills that dominate the city. The Balkans as a whole were a
critically important part of the Roman Empire and the regions towns and
cities often hosted garrisons of legionaries to ensure invaders would be
rebuffed. Trimontium was no different, and aqueducts were used to
provide a secure flow of fresh water that would not be disrupted should
the city fall under siege. Little is left of Trimontium's aqueduct but
the short section that still stands displays a quite modern beauty
highlighted by the pleasing use of red brick and white local stone.
Aqueduct of the Gier, Lyon, France
The Aqueduct of the Gier
is one of the longest and most complex Roman aqueducts. Utilizing
tunnels, covered concrete culverts and classic raised sections over a
sinuous path that stretches over 85 km (52 miles). The aqueduct was
built over a period of several years at least in the first century AD
and brought water to the Roman city of Lugdunum; now Lyon in eastern
Romans were brilliant hydrological engineers and investigation of the
inner workings of the Aqueduct of the Gier reveals the extensive use of
soldered and pressurized lead pipes, holding tanks, siphons and manholes
provided for maintenance.
Aqüeducte de les Ferreres, Tarragonna, Catalonia (Spain)
The Aqüeducte de les Ferreres
(also known as Pont del Diable in Catalan and Devil's Bridge in
English) is a spectacular, 249 meter (817 ft) long aqueduct built around
the year 0 in the reign of the first Roman emperor Augustus.
27 meter (88.5 ft) high structure was built to bring fresh water to the
Roman city of Tarraco, today Tarragona in Spain's autonomous region of
Catalonia. In the year 2000, UNESCO added the Aqüeducte de les Ferreres
to its listing of World Heritage sites.
Here's a short video featuring the Aqüeducte de les Ferreres in all its glory:
Valens Aqueduct (Bozdogan Kemeri), Istanbul, Turkey
The Valens Aqueduct
or Bozdogan in Turkish, was one of the main aqueducts supplying water
to the capital of Byzantium, Constantinople. Such was the importance
(and structural integrity) of this aqueduct that after the great city
fell to Ottoman invaders in 1453, the occupiers repaired and maintained
the aqueduct which today is a prominent part of Istanbul's
infrastructure. The aqueduct was built during the reign of Emperor
Valens (364–378 AD) and was still functioning, albeit at a much-reduced
capacity, into the early 18th century.
the 1940s, Istanbul city planners were faced with a conundrum when
designing the route of Ataturk Boulevard, which would intersect with an
existing segment of the Valens Aqueduct. Thankfully, a solution was
found by which the boulevard passed under the aqueduct's arches without
disturbing its foundations. Subsequent repairs, cleaning and
strengthening have ensured the underpass is safe for both citizenry and
Herod's Aqueduct, Caesarea, Israel
Roman port of Caesarea on Israel's Mediterranean coast was a major
center of administration during the early years of the 1st millennium –
the only problem was it did not have a constant and reliable source of
fresh water. The solution was to construct an aqueduct that brought
fresh spring water from the slopes of Mount Carmel, 16 k (about 10
Called Herod's Aqueduct
after the Judean king who commissioned it, the structure features
arched pillars typical of Roman-era construction but hugs the ground as
the area's terrain was mainly flat. The aqueduct also may appear
somewhat squat; this is due to an expansion performed in the 2nd century
AD that widened Herod's original design to carry two parallel water
channels and thus increase the aqueduct's capacity.
Moria Aqueduct, Lesbos, Greece
remains of the Roman aqueduct near Moria on the Greek island of Lesbos
are striking in their combination of delicacy and strength.
Architectural masters of the ancient world, the Romans perfected the
structural arch to the point that many of their grandest monuments
required no mortar to hold the stones together. The Moria Aqueduct
was constructed mainly of locally quarried marble.
Moria Aqueduct supplied approximately 127,000 cubic meters (33,528,000
gallons) of fresh spring water per day to the Roman city of Mytilene.
Precise inclination of the aqueduct's water course over its original 22
km (13.7 mile) length ensured that water arrived at a slow and steady
rate – as with all Roman aqueducts, an exceptional feat of hydrological
Aqueduct of Tyre, Lebanon
was founded by the Phoenicians in the 9th century BC on an island just
off the coast of today's Lebanon. The city's claim to fame in the
ancient world was Tyrian Purple, a brilliant violet dye made from a
certain species of snail. Long invulnerable to attack, the city was
finally conquered by Alexander the Great and revived by the Romans. Most
of the monumental architecture visible at Tyre today dates from the
Roman period (2nd to 6th century AD).
An island city in the sea requires fresh water to support its population, and the remains of Tyre's aqueduct
can be seen running along its former main avenue which leads to a massive triumphal arch.
Diocletian's Aqueduct, Split, Croatia
in what is the modern city of Split, Croatia, was one of the last large
aqueducts built in the Roman Empire. Estimated to have been completed
in the first few years of the 4th century AD, the aqueduct was 9 km (5.6
miles) long and brought fresh water from the Jaso river directly to the
massive palatial complex in the center of the city of Spalatum where
the Roman Emperor Diocletian lived after his retirement.
best-preserved portion of Diocletian's Aqueduct can be found near
Dujmova?a where a 180 meter (590.5 ft) section stands 16.5 meters (54
feet) high. Not too shabby for a guy who lived out the remaining few
years of his life gardening and growing vegetables.
Zaghouan-Carthage Aqueduct, Tunisia
of the longest aqueducts ever built anywhere in the Roman Empire
marched across the arid plains of Tunisia, bringing life-giving water to
the refounded city of Carthage. Some of the Zaghouan-Carthage Aqueduct
132 km (82 mile) course has succumbed to the ravages of time, leaving
only a line of pillars reminiscent of those at Stonehenge.
Carthage of Hannibal lost a hard-fought, bitter war to the Roman
Republic early in the second century BC that ended with the city being
completely destroyed. It wasn't long, however, before Rome realized the
advantages of re-establishing Carthage as a Roman city and upon doing
so, its population swelled to an estimated 500,000. Building the
Zaghouan-Carthage Aqueduct was essential to provide the colonists with
water for domestic and agricultural use.
Acueducto de los Milagros, Mérida, Spain
Of the three main aqueducts built by the Roman's to supply the city of Emerita Augusta (Mérida, today) with water, Los Milagros
(The Miracles) is the largest and best preserved. It is thought that
the aqueduct was constructed in the 1st century AD with further work
performed at the beginning of the 4th century AD.
Milagros drew water from an artificial lake formed by the damming of
several small rivers. The aqueduct itself utilized a double-arcade
format and the stonework was mainly granite blocks interspersed with
stripe-like layers or contrasting red brick. Only 38 of the aqueduct's
25 meter (82 ft) high pillars remain but the ruins still evoke a
powerful sense of ethereal beauty and wonder.
Pont du Gard, Nimes, France
the most beautiful and most complete large Roman aqueduct is not found
in Rome, nor the whole of Italy – it's in the neighboring country of
France. The ancient Roman Aqueduct of Le Pont du Gard
is 2,000 years old (more or less; experts can't agree) and was built to
bring water to the Roman city of Nemausus (today's Nîmes) from the
Fontaines d'Eure springs near the town of Uzès.
is known today as the Pont du Gard is actually only a portion of a much
longer system of aqueducts stretching nearly 50 km (31 miles) in
length. In its prime the aqueduct delivered as much as 20,000 cubic
meters (5 million gallons) of water to the Castellum of Nemausus daily.
Pont du Gard was made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985, and this
worn relic of an ancient empire is more than deserving of the honor.
You've got to hand it to the Romans: without the aid of computers,
motors, electricity or even paper they managed to construct large-scale,
precisely engineered "machines" that functioned perfectly precisely for
centuries. Just like your Mom's Buick… not.
lacy and delicate yet designed with inward strength, the survival of so
many Roman aqueducts built up to 2,000 years ago – and in many cases,
built without mortar to hold their stones together – seems almost
miraculous. Not so much, really: the more you learn about the Romans,
the more their profound skill, knowledge and insight can be appreciated.
One wonders how many of OUR civilization's monumental architectural
works will still be around two thousand years hence.