This next residential project comes from Singapore-based architects ONG&ONG. Named 72 Sentosa Cove House, the residence is located in an exclusive oceanfront residential community in the East of Sentosa Island in Singapore. The architects needed to maximize the space and ensure the inhabitant's privacy while constructing a comfortable yet luxurious residence. Neighbouring houses are situated very close to the house, so the architects made sure that the family had a fresh and private outdoor source of air by adding an enclosed central courtyard in the middle of the house. This also acts like a light chimney for the nearby interior spaces. Surrounded by heavy foliage, the house is protected from indiscrete eyes and allows fresh, clean air to freely move through the house. Designed for a young couple and their children, the house's features include a lap pool and training room that ensure a healthy and balanced lifestyle. The architecture of this house cares for every need: "The building's slimmer east and west facades are a contrast to the wide-open north and south ones. This regulates natural lighting and wind ventilation for efficient thermal circulation. A pitched roof, with its series of repeating slopes, also generates additional skylight openings." Fabulously modern, 72 Sentosa Cove House connects multiple areas – both private and public – into a series of well-planned spaces that greet the family with a comforting feeling.

12 موزه و گالری بزرگ دنیای معاصر

سه شنبه 8 شهریور 1390 06:55 ق.ظ
طبقه بندی:معماری و شهرسازی، 

Cultural landmarks and civic assets, well-designed museums can put unknown towns on the map, revitalize entire urban areas, ignite discussion about architecture and draw in tourists from around the world. From iconic and instantly recognizable contemporary structures like the Guggenheim Bilbao to subtle modern renovations and promising projects that have not yet been built, these 12 stunning museums and galleries designed by some of the world's top architects stand out for their eye-catching visuals, respect for the landscape and history of their settings and sheer brilliance.

Centre Pompidou-Metz by Shigeru Ban & Jean de Castines

(images via: inhabitat)
Architects Jean de Castines and Shigeru Ban teamed up for this stunning expansion of the Centre Pompidou modern art museum in Paris. With an unusual form inspired by Chinese hats and bridges, the Centre Pomidou-Metz features a curving roof made of criss-crossing glue-laminated timber mesh covered in a waterproof fiberglass and Teflon membrane to preserve the works of art inside under the best possible conditions. At night the new facility glows like a lantern, beckoning visitors inside to view the works of modern visionaries like Vassili Kandinsky and Francis Bacon.

Denver Art Museum Frederic C. Hamilton Building by Daniel Libeskind

(images via: arcspace)
One controversial museum design is the Frederic C. Hamilton Building at the Denver Art Museum, envisioned as an echo of the "craggy cliffs" of the nearby Rocky Mountains by architect Daniel Libeskind. Sharp geometric shapes clad in titanium jut out from the earth in this 2006 expansion, which doubled the size of the museum. But even more so than the dramatic exterior, it's the unusual interior that drew both criticism and confusion; the gallery's angled asymmetrical walls hardly seemed fit for art installations. However, artists have met the challenge head-on with adaptive approaches that exploit the interior architecture's transcendence of typical gallery archetypes.

Glaciarium, Glacier National Park, Argentina

(images via:
The new iceberg-shaped 'Glaciarium' in Argentina's Glacier National Park aims to highlight the importance of the region's glaciers, acting both as a museum that educates visitors on the role that glaciers play in the environment and as a research institute that will monitor the 47 glaciers in the park. Despite the weight of the landscape features that inspired it, the museum sits lightly upon the earth, built on a steel frame that rests upon the natural level of the soil.

Groninger Museum, Groningen, Holland

(images via: akbar simonse + panaramio)
Continuing the trend of modern museums and galleries that are not just housings for art, but works of art themselves, the Groninger Museum in Holland is an eye-catching collaboration between Alessandro Mendini, Coop Himmelb(l)au, Michele de Lucchi and Phillipe Starck. From certain angles, the Groninger resembles a massive geometric ship perched on the edge of the canal, an aesthetic that reinforces Holland's watery landscape even as it clashes with the traditional architecture of the region. Deliberately provocative, the design of the Groninger Museum was not immediately popular with locals, but it has become an icon of the city since its completion in 1994.

Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany

(images via: dezeen)
Originally completed in 1849, the Neues Museum of Berlin was nearly destroyed by bombs in World War II and sat abandoned for decades before restoration as a cultural landmark. The renovation of the museum, orchestrated by David Chipperfield Architects, did not erase the wounds but rather preserved them to stand as visible testimony to the museum's history, and that of Berlin. The architect set out to contrast the museum's original refinement with the crumbling brick and bullet holes that resulted from the war, and added subtle modern elements that provide visual continuity without taking away from the narrative of the structure. The renovation won the 2011 Mies van der Rohe Award.

City of Arts and Sciences by Santiago Calatrava

(images via: architecture revived)
Renowned Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava has brought his fluid, soaring design aesthetic to cities around the world, but perhaps none mean so much to him as this sprawling museum in his own hometown of Valencia. Like most of Calatrava's creations, the City of Arts and Sciences is skeletal and organic but almost alien-looking in its starkness. 'City' is an apt description for this complex, which includes an opera house, planetarium, science museum, palace of arts and underwater entertainment including theaters and restaurants. Occupying a dry riverbed in what was once an underdeveloped area of town, the City of Arts and Sciences is now Valencia's top tourist destination, linking the city center to the sea.

Imperial War Museum North by Daniel Libeskind

(images via:
Located on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal, Daniel Libeskind's Imperial War Museum in Manchester, England is based on the globe, "broken into three fragments to depict the shattering effect of war on the history of the world." Referred to as 'shards', the three fragments are situated to signify conflicts that took place on land, water and in the air. The Air Shard takes you 180 feet into the sky in the open air, looking down through a steel mesh floor, while the Water Shard overlooks the canal. The gallery floors in the Earth Shard are curved to replicate the curvature of the earth.

The Sage Gateshead Music & Art Gallery by Foster + Partners

(images via: wikimedia commons)
Transforming what was once referred to as a "post-industrial wasteland", The Sage Gateshead by Foster + Partners cuts a dramatic, glittering silhouette on the River Tyne in Gateshead, England. The curved glass and steel building contains a 1,700-seat concert hall, a 400-seat space for chamber music and a rehearsal room that doubles as a small concert hall and orchestral recording studio. The Sage is also a center for music education, offering classes to the public. No detail was spared in the 10-year planning process, which involved musicians and resulted in such features as 'spongy' concrete to increase acoustics.

Milwaukee Art Museum by Santiago Calatrava

(images via:
Soaring like the skeleton of a great mythical bird over Lake Michigan, the Burke Brise Soleil is Santiago Calatrava's contribution to the Milwaukee Art Museum in Wisconsin. Bearing the architect's signature style, the addition is a movable, wing-like sunscreen perched above the concrete Quadracci Pavilion, with a wingspan comparable to a Boeing 747-400. It opens and closes throughout the day, controlling both light and temperature inside the museum and automatically closing when its ultrasonic wind sensors detect winds stronger than 23 miles per hour. The museum is home to over 25,000 works of art.

New Museum for Contemporary Art by SANAA

(images via: dezeen)
Tall, staggered and white, resembling nothing so much as a precarious tower of baker's boxes, the New Museum for Contemporary Art – often referred to as New Museum on the Bowery – offers, as New York Magazine put it, "a magically unsentimental intrusion, an antidote to the generic luxury springing up around it." Designed by Tokyo architects Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa/SANAA, the nine-level structure is the first fine art museum ever constructed from the ground up in downtown Manhattan. Opening in December 2007, the New Museum is a pristine contrast to the grittiness of the Bowery's reputation (which is changing today, as gentrification sets in). Clad in a seamless aluminum mesh, the structure is airy and spacious with lots of natural light yet few distractions from the world outside.

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry

(images via: wikimedia commons)
Perhaps no art museum in the world is quite as iconic as the Guggenheim Bilbao, which single-handedly put a relatively unknown small Spanish city on the map and stands out as a prime example of bold contemporary architecture. With a design that is both fluid and geometric, the light-catching, ship-like structure by famed architect Frank Gehry bears reflective panels resembling fish scales, reflecting the port town which serves as its setting and the river Nervión upon which it sits.

National Museum of Qatar by Jean Nouvel

(images via: jean nouvel)
Inspired by desert architecture, the new National Museum of Qatar by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Jean Nouvel is made up of a series of interlocking discs which will create pockets of sheltered areas providing refuge from the harsh sun. The 430,000-square-foot cultural center, which will also include cafes, shops, offices and research centers, will be built around the historic Fariq Al Salatah Palace. From above, the complex resembles a caravanserai, a roadside inn providing refuge for desert travelers.

یا.نون دیزاین ...Ya.Non Design

Painting Reality - یک اینستالیشن در ابعاد شهری

دوشنبه 7 شهریور 1390 06:09 ق.ظ
طبقه بندی:معماری و شهرسازی، 

یک اینستالیشن در ابعاد شهری! چهارراه رو به عنوان بوم و تایر اتومبیل‌ها رو به عنوان قلم‌مو و ابتدای هر خیابون رو به عنوان پالت رنگ و فلک و تقدیر رو در نقش نقاش قرار داده!

'painting reality' by iepe + the anonymous crew in berlin, germany
all images courtesy iepe
image © iepe

dutch artist iepe rubingh along with the anonymous crew has transformed a major intersection
near berlin's rosenthaler platz into a colourful, oversized street canvas. 'painting reality' is
a guerrilla-style art project that involved 500 litres of paint to be strategically spilled on to the road.
official german railway bicycles were rented and rigged with hinged buckets that allowed for quick
and easy unloading of the environmentally-friendly, water-based paint. red, yellow, blue, and purple,
the colours were then organically spread by moving vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians to result in
a dynamic, visual piece that mapped the life and motion of the intersection.

image © iepe

image © iepe

image © iepe

image © iepe

image © iepe

منبع : یانون دیزاین

تجربه ای جدید از درخت و گل و گیاه

یکشنبه 6 شهریور 1390 06:13 ق.ظ
طبقه بندی:عکاسی، 

"هر کس در زیر درخت انگور و انجیر خود خواهد نشست....." (منسوب به میخای نبی)

"Everyone will sit under their own vine and under their own fig tree" --Micah 4:4
By the end of this article you might reconsider sitting only under a "fig tree". There are some extremely fantastic trees in this world: exotic, fragrant, fruitful, and simply beautiful. It is summertime in most countries now, so let's pause in a shadow of some of these exceptional living beings (even if you do not believe in "Ents", you will agree that some trees will have incredible stories to tell...).

Probably the most otherworldly and mysteriously named of them all is the Dragon Blood Tree, which we discussed in our Socotra Island article The Most Alien-looking Landscape on Earth:

(images credit: Tristan, 2, 3)
The red resin that the tree produces is used (predictably) in lipsticks, ritual magic and alchemy. In voodoo rituals it seems to attract either love, or money (it's never both, you know) or can simply be used as a breath freshener, or toothepaste.
The aptly named Cannonball tree (common to northen parts of South America and Caribbean) often requires a warning sign under it:

(images credit: 1, 2)
The fruits will fall down once ripe, and since they are more than ten inches in diameter, they can easily kill you. So park planners try not to plant these trees close to sidewalks and paths.

(images credit: 1, 2, via)
Once you come closer, however (exercising extreme caution, of course), you can observe wonderfully-shaped flowers:

(image credit: Gilberto Santa Rosa)
Another exotic tree with fantastic flowers is the Bombax Tree, also known as "Silk Cotton Tree":

(image via)
This tree belongs to a baobab family, originates from India and brings a lot of color to many streets in Middle East and Asia (especially in Israel and India). It has large red flowers (Bombax ceiba means 'Orange Glow') - so intensely colored that they seem almost made out of plastic:

(images by Nataly, via and J. Jankovsky, via)
Another flower variety for this tree (this time from Hawaii):

(image credit: Dark Sevier)
Apparently this magnificent tree can be grown in miniature, like a bonsai tree, out of a single planted seed (left). On the right is Bombax Ellipticum, shaped like a turtle's shell:

(right image by Michael Buckner, via)
On the image below right is the strange bark of the Red Silk Cotton Tree (Bombax malabaricum):

(images via 1, 2)
The demon of death... enveloped in Bombax roots
One kind of the Bombax tree even has a sinister story associated with it:
"According to the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, the Castle of the Devil is a huge silk cotton tree growing deep in the forest in which Bazil the demon of death was imprisoned by a carpenter. The carpenter tricked the devil into entering the tree in which he carved seven rooms, one above the other, into the trunk. Folklore claims that Bazil still resides in that tree."

(Angkor Wat, Cambodia - image via, and at Ta Prom Temple, via)
Here is a giant Bombax tree, obviously mighty and wise, at the Ta Prom temple in Cambodia (left) - and another huge bombax root in India (right):

(images by Katandewan, via; right image via)
Another incredible tangle of roots can be found at Lake Camecuaro, Mexico, in Michoacan area - these are massive cypress trees standing in water:

(image credit: Cecilia Ortiz)

(image credit: Nikoniano)
"Upside-Down Trees" and The Avenue of Baobabs
Speaking of baobabs... The Monkey Bread Tree can come in many weird shapes, like the bottle shape on the right (Teapot Baobab)... or it can reach to the sky with the bare root-like branches, creating the illusion of being planted "upside down" (left):

(right image credit: Giles Croissant)
Baobabs store water in their swollen trunks - as much as 31,700 gallon (120,000 l) of water. Some empty trunks were so big that they were routinely used as prisons in Western Australia. One such prison tree can fit up to 5 people inside:

(image credit: Brian Yap)
So what about "monkey bread" name? The fruits of baobab are also called the "Judas Fruit" (the fruit has 30 seeds inside, like 30 "pieces of silver"). The beautiful creamy white flowers (right) are pollinated by bats:

(images credit: Forest & Kim Starr, 2)
These grand trees can be photographed the best at the Baobab Avenue, near Morondava, in Madagascar:

(image credit: Ariadne Van Zandbergen)

(image credit: Taishi Maehara)

(image credit: Pat Hooper)
This spot is one of the most magical on Earth, and easily could be called One of the Seventh Wonders of Africa. It reminds me of some of fantasy landscape art, for example "The Renegades of Pern" by Michael Whelan - see it here.
The Most Sheltering Tree & The Walking Tree
We started by speaking about sitting under a fig tree. Well, there is a huge fig tree, with a wonderfully spread out shadow. It's the Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis), the National Tree of India, also called the Bengal Fig. Here it is in Hawaii:

(image credit: Billy Crafton)
In India people worship under this tree, wandering between the strands of mighty aerial roots - the tree can grow as large as the whole city block, for example the Great Banyan Tree, which is a forest in itself:

(image via)
At one point it was "the widest tree in the world in terms of the area of the canopy... A 330 m long road was built around its circumference, but the tree continues to spread beyond it."
This is not a forest, but a single tree with multiple aerial roots! -

(image via)
"The circumference of the whole complex of trees grown from the one central ancestor - still very much alive and all connected to it by the roots visible well over human height - is measured in kilometers."
Speaking of the aerial roots, or "legs" with which a tree can reach into the ground and thus "extend" itself - there is a Walking Tree (more info) equipped with the unusual "stilt roots", which supposedly make it more stable... or let the tree wander at night? (just kidding)

(images via)
More trees to slowly grow on you and make your mind branch out in every direction
Jacaranda tree with beautiful purple flowers (A Jewel of Australia and New Zealand):

(images via, Rosebees:Australian Florist Internet Connection)
Very interesting Elephant Apple Tree (Dillenia Indica), found mostly in India:

(images via)
Some unusually shaped trees, found around the world: naturally shaped by wind and elements -

(original unknown)
- and shaped by humans as part of arboreal art (we wrote an article about such artists - Living, Growing Architecture):

(originals unknown)
Even dead trees can be incredibly expressive:

(image credit: Martin Stavars)

(image credit: Marc Adamus)
Probably the most enchanting tree image... so Tolkien-esque that you can almost hear the elves singing:

(image credit: Gary McParland)
Check out these beautiful glass trees by an unknown artist... let us know whose work is this:

(original unknown)

پل ها و مهندسی های رومی

پنجشنبه 27 مرداد 1390 06:02 ق.ظ
طبقه بندی:معماری و شهرسازی، 

همیشه تو تاریخ های هنر می خونیم که رومی ها خیلی تو مهندسی رشد کردن و پل ها و آب راه های زیادی ساختن ؛ ولی هیچ وقت درست و حسابی کارهای اونا رو ندیدیم.
این جا مجموعه ای از پل ها و مهندسی های به جا مونده از امپراطوری روم باستان رو در کنار هم داریم :
طاق رومی که این قدر معروفه هم همین چیزیه که دارین توی این سازه ها می بینین.

Aqueducts, those most triumphal examples of Roman arched architecture, have been displaying the engineering genius of the ancients for tens of centuries. These spectacular monuments not only spanned rivers and valleys to provide Roman cities with precious drinking water, aqueducts also spanned the length and breadth of Rome's far-flung empire. Here are 15 of the most noteworthy survivors.

The Park of the Aqueducts, Rome, Italy

It's been said that "all roads lead to Rome" but the same might be said about aqueducts. Ancient Rome had a population of just over 1 million and on hot summer days, it takes more than bread and circuses to cool off a public inflamed by a gladiatorial doubleheader at the Colosseum. During the Middle Ages, Rome's population dropped to around 30,000 – due in no small part to water shortages caused by the decay of the Eternal City's life-giving aqueducts. The remains of several of Rome's largest aqueducts can be seen, up close and personal, at The Park of The Aqueducts.
(image via: Wikimedia)
A common theme of art's Romantic Age was the decline and fall of Ancient Rome. Painters such as Thomas Cole sought to express the weight of history and the loss of wisdom embodied in the fall of Rome by painting the remnants of the Empire's largest and most visible examples of monumental architecture, the aqueducts. Above is "Roman Campagna (Ruins of Aqueducts in the Campagna di Roma)", painted by Cole in 1843.

Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain

The Aqueduct of Segovia is one of the best-preserved Roman aqueducts in Spain. So well-built was the aqueduct and so studious its maintenance through the Middle Ages that it functioned as a viable water delivery system well into the 20th century.
(images via: Fotografias and Wikimedia)
The aqueduct features a total of 167 arches and the granite blocks used in its construction were assembled without the use of mortar.
(image via: Sacred Destinations)
The aqueduct was repaired in the year 1072 and again in the late 15th century on the orders of Spain's ruling couple, Ferdinand and Isabella. At that time it was specified that the original visual style and construction techniques be followed to the letter. Currently undergoing repair and restoration, the Aqueduct of Segovia is a valued city and state cultural landmark that showcases the vast skill of Roman engineers nearly 2,000 years ago.

Eifel Aqueduct, Koln, Germany

(images via: D.E.A and Wikipedia)
The Eifel Aqueduct was built in 80 AD to provide the Roman city of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (today's Cologne) with fresh water. The entire system stretched across 95 kilometers (59 miles) to tap springs in Germany's Eifel region. Most of the aqueduct was built underground to minimize damage, vandalism (perhaps from actual Vandals) and freezing in winter.
(image via: Stephanie Klocke)
The few above-ground sections of the Eifel Aqueduct that remain show complex and skillful construction methods using brick and stone masonry that would not be matched in central Europe for many centuries. Curiously, medieval craftsmen would remove the calcium carbonate scale that accumulated in the inner walls of the aqueduct and reuse it as a sort of faux marble called Eifel Stone.

Pont d'Aël, Cogne, Italy

(images via: Postecode and Aymavilles)
The Pont d'Aël is a practical combination of an aqueduct and a bridge. Located near Aosta in northern Italy, the Pont d'Aël was part of a 6 km (3.7 mile) long aqueduct that brought water to the newly founded Roman farming colony of Augusta Prætoria Salassorum; today's Aosta. The original structure dates from the year 3 BC and rises 66 meters (216.5 ft) above the Aosta Valley.
(image via: Dilia Splinder)
Unusually, the Pont d'Aël and its associated waterworks were not financed by the state; instead the venture was privately planned and funded by Caius Avillius Caimus, a wealthy citizen from the city of Patavium (Padua).

Plovdiv Aqueduct, Bulgaria

(image via: Structurae)
Founded by the ancient Macedonians and named Philippopolis, today's Plovdiv, Bulgaria was renamed Trimontium by the Romans as a nod to the three main hills that dominate the city. The Balkans as a whole were a critically important part of the Roman Empire and the regions towns and cities often hosted garrisons of legionaries to ensure invaders would be rebuffed. Trimontium was no different, and aqueducts were used to provide a secure flow of fresh water that would not be disrupted should the city fall under siege. Little is left of Trimontium's aqueduct but the short section that still stands displays a quite modern beauty highlighted by the pleasing use of red brick and white local stone.

Aqueduct of the Gier, Lyon, France

The Aqueduct of the Gier is one of the longest and most complex Roman aqueducts. Utilizing tunnels, covered concrete culverts and classic raised sections over a sinuous path that stretches over 85 km (52 miles). The aqueduct was built over a period of several years at least in the first century AD and brought water to the Roman city of Lugdunum; now Lyon in eastern France.
(image via: Wilke Schram)
The Romans were brilliant hydrological engineers and investigation of the inner workings of the Aqueduct of the Gier reveals the extensive use of soldered and pressurized lead pipes, holding tanks, siphons and manholes provided for maintenance.

Aqüeducte de les Ferreres, Tarragonna, Catalonia (Spain)

(image via: Xtec)
The Aqüeducte de les Ferreres (also known as Pont del Diable in Catalan and Devil's Bridge in English) is a spectacular, 249 meter (817 ft) long aqueduct built around the year 0 in the reign of the first Roman emperor Augustus.
(images via: and Serrallenc)
The 27 meter (88.5 ft) high structure was built to bring fresh water to the Roman city of Tarraco, today Tarragona in Spain's autonomous region of Catalonia. In the year 2000, UNESCO added the Aqüeducte de les Ferreres to its listing of World Heritage sites.
Here's a short video featuring the Aqüeducte de les Ferreres in all its glory:

Valens Aqueduct (Bozdogan Kemeri), Istanbul, Turkey

The Valens Aqueduct, or Bozdogan in Turkish, was one of the main aqueducts supplying water to the capital of Byzantium, Constantinople. Such was the importance (and structural integrity) of this aqueduct that after the great city fell to Ottoman invaders in 1453, the occupiers repaired and maintained the aqueduct which today is a prominent part of Istanbul's infrastructure. The aqueduct was built during the reign of Emperor Valens (364–378 AD) and was still functioning, albeit at a much-reduced capacity, into the early 18th century.
(image via: Achudinov)
During the 1940s, Istanbul city planners were faced with a conundrum when designing the route of Ataturk Boulevard, which would intersect with an existing segment of the Valens Aqueduct. Thankfully, a solution was found by which the boulevard passed under the aqueduct's arches without disturbing its foundations. Subsequent repairs, cleaning and strengthening have ensured the underpass is safe for both citizenry and history.

Herod's Aqueduct, Caesarea, Israel

The Roman port of Caesarea on Israel's Mediterranean coast was a major center of administration during the early years of the 1st millennium – the only problem was it did not have a constant and reliable source of fresh water. The solution was to construct an aqueduct that brought fresh spring water from the slopes of Mount Carmel, 16 k (about 10 miles) away.
(image via: Corbis)
Called Herod's Aqueduct after the Judean king who commissioned it, the structure features arched pillars typical of Roman-era construction but hugs the ground as the area's terrain was mainly flat. The aqueduct also may appear somewhat squat; this is due to an expansion performed in the 2nd century AD that widened Herod's original design to carry two parallel water channels and thus increase the aqueduct's capacity.

Moria Aqueduct, Lesbos, Greece

(images via: Harald Voglhuber and Agni Travel)
The remains of the Roman aqueduct near Moria on the Greek island of Lesbos are striking in their combination of delicacy and strength. Architectural masters of the ancient world, the Romans perfected the structural arch to the point that many of their grandest monuments required no mortar to hold the stones together. The Moria Aqueduct was constructed mainly of locally quarried marble.
(image via: Los Chu-Chus)
The Moria Aqueduct supplied approximately 127,000 cubic meters (33,528,000 gallons) of fresh spring water per day to the Roman city of Mytilene. Precise inclination of the aqueduct's water course over its original 22 km (13.7 mile) length ensured that water arrived at a slow and steady rate – as with all Roman aqueducts, an exceptional feat of hydrological engineering!

Aqueduct of Tyre, Lebanon

Tyre was founded by the Phoenicians in the 9th century BC on an island just off the coast of today's Lebanon. The city's claim to fame in the ancient world was Tyrian Purple, a brilliant violet dye made from a certain species of snail. Long invulnerable to attack, the city was finally conquered by Alexander the Great and revived by the Romans. Most of the monumental architecture visible at Tyre today dates from the Roman period (2nd to 6th century AD).
(image via: Virtual Tourist)
An island city in the sea requires fresh water to support its population, and the remains of Tyre's aqueduct can be seen running along its former main avenue which leads to a massive triumphal arch.

Diocletian's Aqueduct, Split, Croatia

Diocletian's Aqueduct in what is the modern city of Split, Croatia, was one of the last large aqueducts built in the Roman Empire. Estimated to have been completed in the first few years of the 4th century AD, the aqueduct was 9 km (5.6 miles) long and brought fresh water from the Jaso river directly to the massive palatial complex in the center of the city of Spalatum where the Roman Emperor Diocletian lived after his retirement.
(image via: Snjezana Novak)
The best-preserved portion of Diocletian's Aqueduct can be found near Dujmova?a where a 180 meter (590.5 ft) section stands 16.5 meters (54 feet) high. Not too shabby for a guy who lived out the remaining few years of his life gardening and growing vegetables.

Zaghouan-Carthage Aqueduct, Tunisia

(images via: Corbis and Corbis)
One of the longest aqueducts ever built anywhere in the Roman Empire marched across the arid plains of Tunisia, bringing life-giving water to the refounded city of Carthage. Some of the Zaghouan-Carthage Aqueduct's 132 km (82 mile) course has succumbed to the ravages of time, leaving only a line of pillars reminiscent of those at Stonehenge.
(image via: Corbis)
The Carthage of Hannibal lost a hard-fought, bitter war to the Roman Republic early in the second century BC that ended with the city being completely destroyed. It wasn't long, however, before Rome realized the advantages of re-establishing Carthage as a Roman city and upon doing so, its population swelled to an estimated 500,000. Building the Zaghouan-Carthage Aqueduct was essential to provide the colonists with water for domestic and agricultural use.

Acueducto de los Milagros, Mérida, Spain

(images via: Fotopedia)
Of the three main aqueducts built by the Roman's to supply the city of Emerita Augusta (Mérida, today) with water, Los Milagros (The Miracles) is the largest and best preserved. It is thought that the aqueduct was constructed in the 1st century AD with further work performed at the beginning of the 4th century AD.
(image via: Urbanity)
Los Milagros drew water from an artificial lake formed by the damming of several small rivers. The aqueduct itself utilized a double-arcade format and the stonework was mainly granite blocks interspersed with stripe-like layers or contrasting red brick. Only 38 of the aqueduct's 25 meter (82 ft) high pillars remain but the ruins still evoke a powerful sense of ethereal beauty and wonder.

Pont du Gard, Nimes, France

(image via: Wallpaper Web)
Perhaps the most beautiful and most complete large Roman aqueduct is not found in Rome, nor the whole of Italy – it's in the neighboring country of France. The ancient Roman Aqueduct of Le Pont du Gard is 2,000 years old (more or less; experts can't agree) and was built to bring water to the Roman city of Nemausus (today's Nîmes) from the Fontaines d'Eure springs near the town of Uzès.
What is known today as the Pont du Gard is actually only a portion of a much longer system of aqueducts stretching nearly 50 km (31 miles) in length. In its prime the aqueduct delivered as much as 20,000 cubic meters (5 million gallons) of water to the Castellum of Nemausus daily.
(image via: Real Daily Photo)
The Pont du Gard was made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985, and this worn relic of an ancient empire is more than deserving of the honor. You've got to hand it to the Romans: without the aid of computers, motors, electricity or even paper they managed to construct large-scale, precisely engineered "machines" that functioned perfectly precisely for centuries. Just like your Mom's Buick… not.

(image via: Riding Brazil)
Outwardly lacy and delicate yet designed with inward strength, the survival of so many Roman aqueducts built up to 2,000 years ago – and in many cases, built without mortar to hold their stones together – seems almost miraculous. Not so much, really: the more you learn about the Romans, the more their profound skill, knowledge and insight can be appreciated. One wonders how many of OUR civilization's monumental architectural works will still be around two thousand years hence.

همنشینی بتن و چوب در طراحی داخلی

چهارشنبه 26 مرداد 1390 06:02 ق.ظ
طبقه بندی:معماری و شهرسازی، 

Pio Pio restaurant by Sebastian Mariscal in New York

The city that never sleeps is notorious for its energy, diversity and relentless nature of thriving culture and innovation. A hot spot for pushing retail and hospitality experiences, the city perpetually finds ways to surprise you and inspire you. As a frequent New York City visitor, I often try to explore new urban veins in order to maintain New York as the "never-ending story." Although every visit seems to have its own element of surprise, there has been an almost constant behavior to the city - its connection to the streetscape.

The essence of any urban sidewalk is (1) directing pedestrian flow, (2) creating a protective division parallel to the street, (3) staging an experience adjacent to the vertical elements. The goal to countless fit-out spaces is to provide a strong connection to the streetscape in order to attract busy pedestrians into the space. A brief pause into the vitrine often provides you with the decision on whether the internal experience is worth your time. Nonetheless, the connection and accessibility to the street are a key factor to the New York fit-out. Although connecting to the street is a common behavior of many fit-outs, San Diego-based Sebastian Mariscal Studio, decided to provide an enclave from the busy artery. The Pio Pio restaurant offers the flavor of Latin america and an unorthodox connection to the New york City street.

Located in the Hell's Kitchen district of Manhattan (between 34th and 57th Streets), this gritty neighborhood is historically famous for its rough look, busy underworld and ethnic conflicts that inspired the West Side Story. Far from its once notorious culture, this neighborhood is now home to diverse gastronomic experiences, aspiring actors and a fast changing social fabric.

Since transparency is common and expected, Sebastian Mariscal wanted to lead and transport people to a different place - a Latin American place. The 5,268-square-foot space seems improbable when looking at it from its facade. The L-shaped plan provides an opportunity to divide the space into a progression of smaller experiences until it opens up into the main dining space. Spatially, each alcove channels your experience to the rich materials, and only as you move through it, does it unfold the the flavors of Latin America and further disconnect you from the New York City street.

Although Peruvian in its gastronomic experience, Sebastian Mariscal wanted to utilize materials that resonate to the Latin American culture and way of life.

"The original design was for a Mexican Restaurant, but we wanted to connect non literally to the experience of the Latin American Culture. Touching more on emotions in the environment and juxtaposition of space rather than literal cultural elements."

Sebastian Mariscal

The simplicity and humble selection of materials narrates the vernacular architecture in Latin America; concrete, wood and stone. This creates a narrative of contradictions. The wood is Ocotillo Canes that were harvested on a Ranch in Mexico. They were allowed to dry out in the sun for 5 months, then shipped to a kiln in upstate New York, then brought to the site where they debarked by hand. The mixture of contrasting materials sets the tone to a pleasant experience as it amalgamates with the food.

In a sea of steel and glass, the wood and concrete serve a visual and tactile queue to something new, attracting passersby into the space. Its silent, yet distinct sense of arrival serves as an example of how design can speak without the overt use use of typography and graphics (if done correctly). Abrupt turns within the space are softened by the consistent use of horizontal wood planks that direct you though the space, not only acting as skin but also as a directional wayfinding method. The undertone of the space allows the food, people and conversation to be the focus - a cultural staple of Latin American culture. Pio Pio is a must culinary destination if you are in New York City.

ساختمان کرایسلر (پلان + عکس)

سه شنبه 25 مرداد 1390 06:02 ق.ظ
طبقه بندی:معماری و شهرسازی، 

©Wikimedia Commons
In a skyline that has developed New York as a destination for architects and city lovers alike, the Chrysler Building by William Van Alen is identifiable from any distance for its distinguishable style and profile against its surroundings. With the initial intention to be the world's tallest building, it remained so for only eleven months until it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. The Chrysler Building is a classic example of the Art Deco style, from the street to its terraced crown. Interior and exterior alike, it is admired for its distinctive ornamentation based on features that were also found on Chrysler automobiles at the time.
More on the Chrysler Building by William Van Alen after the break.

©New York Architecture
When Walter Chrysler took over the lease of the proposed office building in construction, he was interested in building the highest structure known to date. As this was the goal of most architects across the table, William Van Alen kept the 185-foot spire addition a secret until it was delivered to the site in sections to be erected in a surprising 90 minutes. This unbelievably speedy addition paralleled the frantic pace of construction of the rest of the skyscraper; an average of four floors were completed per week.
Costing a total of $20,000,000, the unique skyscraper is made with 29,961 tons of steel, about 3,826,000 bricks, and 5,000 windows. All the bricks were manually laid by hand, creating non-loadbearing walls. To create this Art Deco masterpiece, tradesmen with specialized skills gathered on the site, coordinating between contractors, builders, engineers and other building services experts.

©Wikimedia Commons
The white and dark gray brickwork of the facade emphasizes the horizontality of the rows of windows. The stepping spires are made of stainless steel with a stylized sunburst motif, and sit just above a series of gargoyles that depict American eagles which stare out over the city. More noticeable connections between the exterior of the building and the Chrysler car are the sculptures modeled after radiator caps and ornaments of car wheels that decorate the lower setbacks.

©New York Architecture
Standing 319.5 meters (1048 feet) high, the Chrysler Building houses 77 floors, including a lobby three stories high with entrances from three sides of the building, Lexington Avenue, 42nd and 43rd Streets. Its triangular form is lavishly decorated with Red Moroccan marble walls, sienna-colored floor, onyx, blue marble and steel. Artist Edward Trumbull was hired to paint murals on the ceiling; these paintings and other parts of the interior were refurbished in 1978 by JCS Design Associates and Joseph Pell Lombardi.

©New York Architecture
The Chrysler Building was purchased in 1957 by real estate moguls Sol Goldman and Alex DiLorenzo, and was later sold to the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company. The new owners refurbished the facade and renovated in 1978, and then sold again to Jack Kent Cooke, an investor. In 1976, the Chrysler Building was declared a National Historic Landmark.
In 2007, the Chrysler Building was ranked ninth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. It remains one of the most recognizable buildings, as it has been featured in several movies, including Godzilla, Armageddon, Deep Impact, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, Sex and the City and Spider-Man.
Architect: William Van Alen
Location: Manhattan, New York
Project Year: 1928-1930
Photographs: New York Architecture, Wikimedia Commons
References: David Stravitz, Gerald Hoberman
chrysler20 ©Wikimedia Commons chrysler1 ©New York Architecture chrysler19 ©Wikimedia Commons chrysler2 ©New York Architecture chrysler15 ©New York Architecture chrysler4 ©New York Architecture chrysler22 ©Wikimedia Commons chrysler21 ©Wikimedia Commons chrysler17 ©New York Architecture chrysler14 ©New York Architecture chrysler13 ©New York Architecture chrysler18 ©New York Architecture chrysler12 ©New York Architecture chrysler11 ©New York Architecture chrysler10 ©New York Architecture chrysler9 ©New York Architecture chrysler8 ©New York Architecture chrysler7 ©New York Architecture chrysler6 ©New York Architecture chrysler5 ©New York Architecture chrysler3 ©New York Architecture chryser16 ©New York Architecture Chrysler_Detail_1 detail 01 Chrysler_Detail_2 detail 02 Chrysler_Floors_6-10 plan 01 Chrysler_Floors_51-55 plan 02 Chrysler_Ground_Plan plan 03

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